There was a time when women were expected to stay at home, do the house chores and look after the kids but today women are giving a tough competition to men in all the fields. Women have proved that they are capable of achieving success without the help of men. From becoming the president of a nation to working on radioactive energy, some of the genius women have given so much to the mankind that they etched their names in the history. So many women have done incredible work in physics, chemistry, medicine, literature and promoted peace all over the world that they were awarded the Nobel Prize which is a dream for many people. Given below is a list of top ten women who received the Nobel Prize:
- Marie Curie
Born in Warsaw 7th November 1867, in a family who strictly gave importance to education, Marie Curie got her education from a local school. She learned a lot of things from her father in the subject of science. During the year 1891 she moved to Paris, where she studied physics and mathematical science in Sorbonne. She was made the professor of general physics in the faculty of sciences after her husband’s tragic death which was the first time a woman was appointed at that post. Later she became very interested in studying radioactive energy and developed a method to separate radium from radioactive residues to study its properties. Sharing the first Nobel Prize for physics with her husband in 1903, she got another one in chemistry for her work in radioactivity in 1911, which gained her a lot of respect and popularity.
- Barbara Mcclintock
Barbara, who belonged to a very poor family spent her childhood in Connecticut, in New York. Her family had a mind-set which gave importance to marriage and not education but even after that she got support from her father. She got into Cornell’s college of agriculture which made her devoted to studies because of which she never got married. The study of corn’s hereditary characteristics was the main focus of Barbara. The position on a chromosome can be changed due to genetic elements that can result in nearby genes to become active or inactive was proved by her. Barbara’s discovery of mobile genetic elements was the reason she received the Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine in 1983.
- Ellan Johnson Sirleaf
Ellan was born in Monrovia, Liberia on 29th October 1938 and moved to the United States with her husband after getting married where she studied economics at the Harvard University. Later she returned to her home country Liberia and started working for the government. In 1977 she stood for the Liberian presidential election in which she was unfortunately defeated. The year 2005 changed her life when she won the presidential elections and got re-elected again in 2011 because of her incredible work. Becoming the first female head of the state, she wanted to uplift and influence the women. She devoted her life to spread peace and worked hard to promote social and economic development of her country. She took the path of peace and promoted women safety along with educating them about their rights. Her work was appreciated by awarding her the Nobel peace prize in the year 2011.
- Elinor clair awan
Elinor Clair Awan was born in Los Angeles, California in a middle class family. Student at the University of California, Elinor was interested in studying political science. She started field studies on how people in tiny and local communities shared resources such as fishing waters, forests and pastures. She did not agree with the economists who suggested that the resources that were used collectively for a long period will be exploited in the end rather she proved that when the resources were shared together, it was more economically and ecologically sustainable. After proving herself right, she was awarded with the Nobel Prize in economics in 2009.
- Frances Arnold
Frances Arnold was born and raised in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania in the United States. She studied mechanical and aerospace engineering at Princeton University and then continued her studies at the University of California. She received a Nobel Prize in chemistry in the year 2018 which was a result 0f her work in 1993, when she conducted the first directed evolution of enzymes. She developed ways to produce renewable fuels and chemical substances like pharmaceuticals in an environment friendly manufacturing.
- Maria Goeppert Mayer
Maria won a noble prize in physics during the year 1963 as she discovered the concerns related to nuclear shell structure. After getting married she moved to the United States and was prohibited to get employment in the same university as her husband’s. She was known to many universities because she was a genius lady. During World War II, she was also researching on the American atom bomb project.
- Donna Strickland
In 1985 Donna Strickland with her partner Gerard Mourou successfully created ultra-short high intensity laser pulses without destroying the amplifying material. They won the Nobel Prize in physics in the year 2018 for their work.
- Emmanuelle Charpentier
Emmanuelle grew up in Juvisy Sur orange, France and received the Nobel Prize in chemistry during the year 2020 for the development of a method for genome editing. Emmanuelle and her partner Jennifer created a methodology for high precision changes to genes. They made a tool that could be used to cut DNA molecule at a planned situation.
- Elizabeth Blackburn
Elizabeth was born in Hobart on the island of Tasmania, Australia to parents who were doctors. She went to Melbourne to study biochemistry as she had an interest in environment resources. She completed her PhD at the University of Cambridge where she also found her life partner. Elizabeth received a Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine during 2009 for the discovery of how chromosomes are protected by telomeres and the enzyme telomerase.
- Rita Levi Montalcini
Rita was born in Turin, Italy in a wealthy Jewish family. She started studying medicine at a university in Turin. Result of her intelligence bought her to Washington University in St. Louis, USA. After completing her research on growth factors, she received the Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine in 1986.