The periodic table of elements contains 118 discovered elements. The chemical and physical properties of those elements are different from each other because of the atoms in the elements. Those properties were studied by researchers and have classified the elements in the table according to their properties in the periodic table. Here are the ten most amazing elements from the periodic table that most of the students would love to know.
The Carbon atomic symbol is C. Its atomic number is 6 and the atomic weight is 12. The name carbon was derived from the Latin word “carbo” which means charcoal. Carbon is the 15th most abundant element in the Earth’s crust and the 4th most abundant element in the universe by mass. It is the second most abundant element in the human body by a mass of about 18.5% after oxygen. The abundance of carbon, its unique diversity of organic compounds, and its unusual ability to form polymers at the temperatures commonly encountered on Earth enables this element to serve as a common element of all known life. Thus, it is known as “King of the Elements” in the periodic table. Carbon in the pure form (charcoal, graphite, diamond, fullerenes and graphene, etc.) is used in the iron and steel industries, pencils, furnace linings, purification, and filtration and respirators and kitchen extractor hoods, etc.
The Nitrogen atomic symbol is N. Its atomic number is 7 and the atomic weight is 14. The nitrogen element was discovered by Daniel Rutherford. Nitrogen is a colorless and odorless gas. Nitrogen is the 7th most abundant element in the universe. The human body contains about 3% Nitrogen. It is the major building block of our atmosphere, which contains a mixture of 21% oxygen, 78.1% Nitrogen, and 0.9% other gases. Nitrogen is also an essential element for life; it is available in every living being including humans. Nitrogen is widely used in the chemical industry for the preparation of ammonia and nitrogen fertilizers, nitric acid, nylon, dyes, explosives such as dynamite and nitrogen-containing organic compounds as medicine for the diseases.
Copper atomic symbol is Cu. Its atomic number is 29 and the atomic weight is 63.5. Copper is a metal that was one of the first metals to be used by humankind. It has a reddish-brown color and a shiny surface. In the Roman era, copper was principally mined on Cyprus, the origin of the name of the metal, from aes сyprium (metal of Cyprus), later corrupted to сuprum (Latin), whence copper (Old English) and copper, first used around 1530. It has good ductility and malleability, and a very good conductor of electricity and heat. Copper is used in a wide range of materials. About 60% of the produced copper is used to make electrical wires because of its good conductivity. It is used in microprocessors of the computers, electrical motors, plumbing, and industrial machinery. Copper is used for making brass (an alloy of copper and zinc) and bronze (an alloy of copper and tin).
Silver atomic symbol is Ag which is derived from the Latin word “Argentum”. The atomic number is 47 and the atomic weight is 107.86. It is a soft, white, lustrous metal with the highest electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, and reflectivity. The metal is found in the Earth’s crust in the pure, free elemental form (“native silver”), as an alloy with gold and other metals, and in minerals such as argentite and chlorargyrite. Silver is used in solar panels, water filtration, jewelry, ornaments, high-value tableware and utensils, in electrical contacts and conductors, in specialized mirrors, window coatings, in catalysis of chemical reactions, as a colorant in stained glass and in specialized confectionery. Its compounds are used in photographic and X-ray film, disinfectants, bandages and wound dressings, and other medical instruments.
Gold atomic symbol is Au which is derived from the Latin word “Aurum”. Its atomic number is 79 and the atomic weight is 200. Gold is a bright, slightly reddish yellow, dense, soft, malleable, and ductile metal in its purest form. Gold often occurs in free elemental (native) form, as nuggets or grains, in rocks, in veins, and in alluvial deposits. It is used extensively in jewelry. This is used in gears for watches, artificial limb joints, cheap jewelry, and electrical connectors. It is ideal for protecting electrical copper components because of conductivity. Thin gold wires are used in computer chips. Dentists use gold alloys in fillings.
The platinum atomic symbol is Pt, which is derived from the Spanish word “Platino”. Its atomic number is 78 and the atomic weight is 195. Platinum is one of the most precious metals found on Earth. It is a more valuable and rare metal than silver and gold. Platinum is a silvery-white and shiny metal; a 3rd densest metal found on Earth and highly malleable and ductile in nature. Platinum is one of the least reactive metals with its remarkable resistance to corrosion, even at high temperatures. Platinum is used in catalytic converters, laboratory equipment, electrical contacts and electrodes, thermometers, dentistry equipment, and jewelry. Platinum compounds, such as cisplatin, oxaliplatin, and carboplatin are used for the treatment of cancer.
Iron atomic symbol is Fe, which is derived from the Latin word “Ferrum”. Its atomic number is 26 and the atomic weight is 55.84. Iron is the 4th most abundant element in the Earth’s crust and the 6th most abundant element in the universe. Iron is a grayish colored shiny and soft metal. It is a conductor of electricity and heat after copper and aluminum. Iron can be alloyed with other elements to make it harder, e.g. carbon. The largest percentage of iron is used to manufacture steel, used in civil engineering (reinforced concrete, girders, etc) and in manufacturing. Iron is used in the cores of electric transformers, generators, motors because of its magnetic properties. Iron is an essential element for all forms of life and is non-toxic. The average human contains about 4 grams of iron in hemoglobin, in the blood.
The atomic symbol of Magnesium is Mg. Its atomic number is 12 and the atomic weight is 24.3. It was discovered by a Scottish chemist, Joseph Black and then isolated by Sir Humphrey Davy. A silvery-white metal ignites easily in air and burns with a bright light. It is the 18th most abundant element on our Earth and makes about 13% of the Earth’s weight. Magnesium is also an abundant element in seawater after sodium and chlorine elements. Magnesium-aluminum alloys are useful in the airplane and car construction. Magnesium is used in lightweight car seats, luggage, laptops, cameras, and power tools and it is used in flares, fireworks, and sparklers. Magnesium oxide is used to make heat-resistant bricks for fireplaces and furnaces. Magnesium hydroxide (milk of magnesia), sulfate (Epsom salts), chloride and citrate are all used in medicine.
Oxygen atomic symbol is O. Its atomic number is 8 and the atomic weight is 16. It was discovered by W. Scheele and Joseph Priestly independently. Oxygen is a diatomic, colorless, and odorless gas under normal conditions. It makes up 21% of the atmosphere by volume. This element and its compounds make up 49.2% by mass of the Earth’s crust, and about two-thirds of the human body. Oxygen is used by animals and plants for respiration. Besides respiration, it has many other uses in industrial, military and medical applications. NASA uses it in the rockets to efficiently burn the fuel. It is used for breathing underwater and in space. Hospitals use oxygen tanks to supply oxygen to the patients in critical conditions. It is used in the production of plastics, water filtration and extraction of metal from their ores.
The Uranium atomic symbol is U. Its atomic number is 92 and the atomic weight is 238. It was discovered by a German chemist, Martin Heinrich Klaproth in 1789 and isolated by Eugene-Melchior Peligot in 1841. It is a very well known element because of its use in atomic bombs and in nuclear power plants. Uranium is a very heavy element among all the naturally occurring elements on Earth. Uranium is a silvery-gray in color metal, which corrodes easily in the air and turns into black oxide. Uranium is used in atomic bombs and used in nuclear power plants to generate electricity without carbon emission. The estimated generation of electricity per kilogram of uranium is equivalent to the generation of electricity from 1500 tons of coal. It is mostly used to construct armors of military vehicles and is used in ammunition to make them heavier at a smaller size to pierce strong armors of enemies.