Periodic table is updating every now and then. New elements are discovered and soon the periodic table changes itself. It is a tabular display of the chemical elements which are arranged by atomic numbers, electron configuration and recurring chemical properties. Modern periodic table provides a useful framework for analyzing chemical reactions, and continues to be widely used in chemistry, nuclear physics and other sciences. Periodic table has some empty spaces which are filled as new elements are discovered which are ‘appropriate’ for the void. Some discussions remain ongoing regarding the placement and categorization of specific elements, the future extension, limits of the table, and whether there is an optimal form of the table. The articles pen down 10 latest discovered elements from 1984 to 2009.
Hassium (Hs) has atomic number 108. It is a d block element in period 7 and group 8. It was discovered in Germany by Gesellschafts fur Schwerionenforschung, 1984. It is transactinide element, 6th in the 6d series of transition metals. Chemical properties of the elements are similar to group 8 elements. Hassium is a very stable and a superheavy element. It produced in laboratory in very small quantities by fusing heavy nuclei with lighter ones. Hassium is not known to occur naturally on Earth; half-lives of all known isotopes are short enough that no primordial hassium would have survived to the present day.
Darmstadtium was created by GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research in the city of Darmstadt, Germany in 1994. Chemical name of the element is Ds with atomic number 110. Darmstadtium is also a d-block element, in period 7 and group 10. It exists in solid state and has properties similar to that of nickel, palladium and platinum. It was made by bombarding with a light-nuclei with a heavy one. It is noble metal with a body-centered cubic structure. The element is extremely radioactive synthetic element with half life of approximately 12.7 seconds.
Roentgenium (Rs) has atomic number 111. It is also an extremely radioactive that can be created in a laboratory but is not found in nature. Its half life is 100 seconds. It was created by GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research in the city of Darmstadt, Germany in 1994. Named after Wilhelm Rontgen who discovered X-rays. It is silvery- metallic in nature with a structure of body-centered cube. Roentgenium is a d-block element of period 7 and group 11. It occurs as solid with properties similar to its lighter homologues, copper, silver and gold. Only a few Roentgenium atoms have ever been synthesized, and they contain no current practical application beyond that of scientific study.
Chemical name of Copernicium is Cn. Its atomic number is 112. Even this element and its isotopes are extremely radioactive. Copernicium is prepared in laboratory. Half life of the same is 28 seconds. It was first created in 1996 by GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research in the city of Darmstadt, Germany. Named after Nicolaus Copernius. It belongs to period 7 and group 12. The d-block element has properties similar to zinc, cadmium and mercury. It exists in liquid state and has a structure of hexagonal close-packed. Predictions vary on whether solid copernicium would be a metal, semiconductor or an insulator.
Flerovium has atomic number 114 with symbol FI. Named after Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna, Russia, where the element was discovered in 1998. The element is an honor of the Russian physicist Georgy Flyorov. The name previously proposed was nobelium which was not accepted by IUPAC. It a p-block element of group 14 and period 7. It exists in liquid state with face-centered cubic structure. The properties of the element are similar to carbon. Initially chemical studies indicated that Flerovium was unexpectedly volatile for a group 14 element in preliminary results it even seemed to exhibit properties similar to noble gases. More recent results show that Flerovium’s reaction with gold is similar to that of copernicium, showing that it is very volatile and may even be gaseous standard temperature and pressure. About 90 atoms of Flerovium are observed out of which 58 were prepared synthetically while the rest of which are a product of nuclear decay.
The element was discovered and named after Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in the United States, which collaborated with the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) in Dubna, Russia to discover livermorium during experiments made in 2000. Chemical name of the element is Lv and atomic number 116. It occurs in solid state at room temperature. Livermorium is a p block element which belongs to group 16 and period 7. It is the heaviest chalcogen with similar properties to its lighter homologues such as oxygen, sulfur, selenium, tellurium and polonium. The element is not observed in nature and is highly radioactive. Half-life of Livermorium is about 60 milliseconds. The name was adopted by IUPAC on May, 30, 2012. A single atom was detected, decaying by alpha emission with the decay energy.
Oganesson is a synthetic chemical element with symbol Og and atomic number 118. It was named on a nuclear physicist Yuri Oganessian, who played a major role in the discovery of the heaviest elements in the periodic table. It is one of the only two elements after a person who was alive at the time of naming, the other being seoborgium, and the only element whose namesake is alive today. It was first prepared in 2002 at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) in Dubna by a joint team of Russian and American scientists. It is p-block element of period 7 and group 18. Other than nuclear properties, no properties of the oganesson or its compound have been measured, due to its extremely limited and expensive production and the fat that it decays very quickly. Thus, only predictions are available. Oganesson has the highest atomic number and atomic mass of all known elements. The radioactive element has only 5-6 atoms synthesized. It was thought to be gaseous in normal conditions but is now predicted to be a slid due to relativistic effects.
Moscovium (Mc) has atomic number 115. It was synthesized in 2003 at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) in Dubna by a joint team of Russian and American scientists. Named after officially named after the Moscow Oblast. It belongs to group 15 and period 7. Since it is a p-block transactinide element, its properties are similar to nitrogen, phosphorus, arsenic, antimony and bismuth. It also has some similarities with thallium, as both have one loosely bonded electron in the outside shell. Half-life of Moscovium is 0.65 seconds. About 100 atoms have been prepared all of which have been shown to have mass numbers from 287 to 290. It is predicted to be solid in normal conditions. Moscovium is recognized as one of the four new elements discovered by the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR).
Nihonium extremely radioactive with half-life of 10 seconds. Atomic number of the element is 113. Nh is p-block transactinide element. Nihonium belongs to period 7 and group 13. It is solid at room temperature and pressure. The element was discovered in Riken, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR), Livermore and named after Japan in 2004. The confirmation of their claims in the ensuing years involved independent teams of scientists working in the United States, Germany, Sweden, and China as well as the original claimants in Russia and Japan. Very little is known about Nihonium, as it has only been made in very small amounts that decay in seconds. It has similar properties to boron, aluminum, gallium, indium and thallium. It is expected to be a post-transition metal like boron. Preliminary experiments in 2017 showed that elemental nihonium is not very volatile; its chemistry remains largely unexplored.
It is synthetically made chemical element with atomic number 117 and symbol, Ts. The second-heaviest known element was discovered in 2009 by Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Vanderbilt University and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Named after Tennessee region, United States. It is a p- block element in period 7 and group 17. It is a member of halogen family and has properties similar to chlorine, iodine etc. Some of its properties may differ significantly from those of the halogens due to its relativistic effects. It is expected to be a more volatile element metal that neither forms anions nor archives high oxidation states. Synthesized atoms have lasted tens and hundreds of milliseconds. Tennesine is one of the most recent discovered elements whose findings were officially announced in April 2010.