10 Ageless Face-Offs One Should Know About

10 Ageless Face-Offs One Should Know About

Where there are individuals there are disputes, where there are communities there are wars!

Prehistoric times also had clashes; there isn’t any exception. Endless attempts have been made to abolish it, but success is yet to be achieved. Eternal peace is still a hypothetical term. Wars, battles, all happen because of one major reason that is to expand one’s boundaries, to conquer resources and rule the masses. Wars have led to only horrible ramifications. Thousands of wars have been fought in history dated for their bloodshed. Millions of people died, families were destroyed, are always remembered with deep misery.

1.The American Civil War

The American Civil War also known as Civil War is one of the most studied and written about war in the history. It is still a subject to debate. It was fought in United States between April 12, 1861 and May 9, 1865. The clash was between states supporting Federal Union (the North) and the South. Slavery was the root problem, especially its expansion into newly acquired land after the Mexican-American War. There were 32 million black slaves in the war. After Confederate forces seized numerous federal forts within territory they claimed, the attempted Crittenden Compromise failed and both sides prepared for war. The Confederacy grew to control at least a majority of territory in eleven states (out of the 34 U.S. states in February 1861), and asserted claims to two more. The states that remained loyal to the federal government were known as the Union. Large volunteer and conscription armies were raised; four years of intense combat, mostly in the South, ensued.

2.The Soviet War of Afghanistan

Clash among insurgent groups, collectively known as Afghan mujahideen, Shi’ite and Maoist group resulted in The Soviet War of Afghanistan (1979-1989). Afghan mujahideen were mainly backed by United States, China and Saudi Arabia while the other party was supported by Germany and India. Between 562,000 and 2,000,000 Afghans were killed and millions more fled the country as refugees, mostly to Pakistan and Iran. Between 6.5%–11.5% of Afghanistan’s population is estimated to have perished in the conflict. The war caused grave destruction in Afghanistan and is believed to have contributed to the Soviet collapse and the end of the Cold War, in hindsight leaving a mixed legacy to people in both territories.

3.The Vietnam War

Also known as Second Indochina War officially fought against North Vietnam and South Vietnam from 1 November 1955 to 30 April 1975. The conflict is considered as a Cold War- Era proxy war for 20 years until direct United States. Many war crimes took place during The Vietnam War which included rapes, massacres if civilians, bombings, terrorism, use of torture and murder of prisoners of wars. On 2 July 1976, North and South Vietnam were merged to form the Socialist Republic of Vietnam. Despite speculation that the victorious North Vietnamese would, in President Nixon’s words, “massacre the civilians there [South Vietnam] by the millions,” there is a widespread consensus that no mass executions took place. However, in the years following the war, a vast number of South Vietnamese were sent to re-education camps where many endured torture, starvation, and disease while being forced to perform hard labor.

4.The Napoleonic Wars

The Napoleonic Wars (1803-1815) were a series of global conflicts led by Napoleon I against an array of European powers. It was in continuation of revolutionary wars during the French Revolution. After wining 53 battles out of 60, Napoleon was defeated in 1814. He was sent to an island, Elba, from where he fled and returned to power. He fought the Battle of Waterloo, after being defeated he was again exiled. The wars resulted in the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire and sowed the seeds of nationalism that led to the consolidations of Germany and Italy later in the century. The global Spanish Empire began to unravel as French occupation of Spain weakened Spain’s hold over its colonies, providing an opening for nationalist revolutions in Spanish America. As a result of the Napoleon wars and the losses of the other great powers, the British Empire became the foremost world power for the next century, thus beginning Pax Britannica.

5.The Thirty Year’s War

The Thirty Years’ War was a conflict fought largely within the Holy Roman Empire from 1618 to 1648. Considered one of the most destructive wars in European history, estimates of military and civilian deaths range from 4.5 to 8 million, while up to 60% of the population may have died in some areas of Germany. Related conflicts include the Eighty Years’ War, the War of the Mantuan Succession, the Franco-Spanish War, and the Portuguese Restoration War. Since ambitious external rulers like Christian IV of Denmark and Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden also held territories within the Empire, what began as an internal dynastic dispute was transformed into a far more destructive European conflict.

6.Taiping Rebellion

Taiping Rebellion was revolt against the Qing Dynasty in China, fought with the religious convictions over regional economic conditions, and lasting from 1850 to 1864. The Taiping forces were run as a cult-like group called the God Worshipping Society by self-proclaimed prophet Hong Xiuquan, and resulted in the rebels seizing the city of Nanjing for a decade. The Taiping Rebellion eventually failed, however, and led to the deaths of more than 20 million people.

7.The Second Sino-Japanese War

The Second Sino-Japanese War was a military conflict that was primarily waged between the Republic of China and the Empire of Japan from 1937 to 1945. Full scale war is often regarded as World War II in Asia. The clash was an outcome of ages-long Japanese imperialist policy to expand its influence politically and military in order to secure access to raw material reserves, food and labor. Increasing textile production from Chinese mills was adversely affecting Japanese production and the Great Depression brought about a large slowdown in exports. All of this contributed to militant nationalism, culminating in the rise to power of a militarist faction.

8.World War I

World War also known as First World War and WWI was a global war initiated by Europe on 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Great war was considered the ‘the war to end all wars.’ It is still the deadliest war ever fought. 8.5 million combatant and 13 million civilians lost their lives. Resulting genocides and the related 1918 Spanish flu pandemic caused another 17–100 million deaths worldwide, including an estimated 2.64 million Spanish flu deaths in Europe and as many as 675,000 in the United States. Later, central powers quit, first Bulgaria, second Ottoman and then the Austro-Hungarian Empire. As a result, German had no countermove. With its allies defeated, revolution at home, and the military no longer willing to fight, Kaiser Wilhelm abdicated on 9 November and Germany signed an armistice on 11 November 1918, ending the war.

9.The Mongol Conquests

The war resulted in massive expansion of the Mongol empire but also caused 60 million lives. Mongols already had 10,000 men and later some more was added.  The main offensive weapon was the light calvary with its rider expert at firing the powerful Mongol composite bow. Mongol horses were another asset both for their sturdiness and stamina, but also their sheer numbers, allowing riders up to 16 spare mounts which meant an army could travel huge distances with great speed.

10.World War II

Second World War (1939-1945) involved majority of countries especially all great powers with Allies and Axis powers. 30 countries invested all their economic, industrial, scientific resources to fight the crisis. Air planes had a distinct role in bombing the entire population, even nuclear weapons were used. It resulted in 70 to 85 million fatalities, a majority being civilians. Tens of millions of people died due to genocides (including the Holocaust), starvation, massacres, and disease. In the wake of the Axis defeat, Germany and Japan were occupied, and war crimes tribunals were conducted against German and Japanese leaders.

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